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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 22-31

Prognosis and outcome of exogenous bacterial osteomyelitis: A prospective cohort study

Department of Microbiology and Orthopaedics, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
K L Sarada Devi
Department of Microbiology and Orthopaedics, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-1282.184758

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Background and Objectives: Exogenous osteomyelitis frequently follows traumatic or surgical inoculation of bacteria into bone and surrounding tissue. It is usually associated with open fractures, surgical implants, orthopaedic fixation devices and vascular insufficiencies such as diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular diseases and presence of foreign bodies. The aim of this study was to identify the pathogenic bacteria causing osteomyelitis and to evaluate the prognosis and outcome of patients with exogenous osteomyelitis. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted with clinical and radiological features of exogenous osteomyelitis were selected for the study from June 2005 to October 2006. Bone curettings or aspirated materials from the sinus tract were collected. The specimens were cultured on appropriate media for bacterial culture. The patients who consented were followed up for 6 months to record their progress and outcome. Those followed up included both culture positives and negatives. Results: Out of 125 cases of osteomyelitis, 75 (60%) were positive by culture, 59 (78.7%) were monomicrobial infections and 16 (21.3%) were polymicrobial infections. Staphylococcus aureu s, 56 (60.8%) in number, was the predominant organism isolated followed by Escherichia coli, eight (8.7%); Klebsiella pneumoniae, seven (7%); Pseudomonas aeruginosa, five (5.4%); β-haemolytic streptococci, four (4.4%); Proteus mirabilis, three (3.2%); Enterococcus faecalis, two (2.2%); Acinetobacter baumannii, two (2.2%); Corynebacterium jeikeium, one (1.1%); Staphylococcus epidermidis, one (1.1%); Proteus vulgaris, one (1.1%); Kingella species one (1.1%) and Arcanobacterium species, one (1.1%). Out of the coagulase-positive staphylococci, 29 (51.8%) were Methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Of the 61 cases that were followed up, 44 cases were culture positive. The total cure rate was 60.2%. Conclusion: Appropriate antibiotic therapy after culture and sensitivity has a major role in treating exogenous osteomyelitis in the presence of fracture and instability of bone. In spite of appropriate surgical correction, the major risk factors that led to recurrence of infections and amputations were overcrowding in wards, extensive tissue injury, poor economic status of patients, non-availability of drugs in the hospital pharmacy, poor compliance of patients and drug toxicity.

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